Accounting Equation Overview, Formula, and Examples

accounting equation

Apple pays for rent ($600) and utilities ($200) expenses for a total of $800 in cash. Current assets and liabilities can be converted into cash within one year. However, each partner generally has unlimited personal liability for any kind of obligation for the business (for example, debts and accidents). Some common partnerships include doctor’s offices, boutique investment banks, and small legal firms.

The working capital formula is Current Assets – Current Liabilities. Not all companies will pay dividends, repurchase shares, or have accumulated other comprehensive income or loss. We use owner’s equity in a sole proprietorship, a business with only one owner, and they are legally liable for anything on a personal level. accounting equation The CFS shows money going into (cash inflow) and out of (cash outflow) a business; furthermore, the CFS is separated into operating, investing, and financing activities. The global adherence to the double-entry accounting system makes the account keeping and tallying processes more standardized and more fool-proof.

What Are the Three Elements in the Accounting Equation Formula?

These may include loans, accounts payable, mortgages, deferred revenues, bond issues, warranties, and accrued expenses. To begin with, it doesn’t provide an analysis of how the business is operating. Furthermore, it doesn’t totally keep accounting mistakes from being made. In any event, when the balance sheet report adjusts itself, there is still a chance of a mistake that doesn’t include the accounting equation. If the expanded accounting equation is not equal on both sides, your financial reports are inaccurate. The third part of the accounting equation is shareholder equity.

The monthly trial balance is a listing of account names from the chart of accounts with total account balances or amounts. Total debits and credits must be equal before posting transactions to the general ledger for the accounting cycle. If a business buys raw materials and pays in cash, it will result in an increase in the company’s inventory (an asset) while reducing cash capital (another asset). Because there are two or more accounts affected by every transaction carried out by a company, the accounting system is referred to as double-entry accounting.


The balance sheet equation answers important financial questions for your business. Use the balance sheet equation when setting your budget or when making financial decisions. Your bank account, company vehicles, office equipment, and owned property are all examples of assets.

Both liabilities and shareholders’ equity represent how the assets of a company are financed. If it’s financed through debt, it’ll show as a liability, but if it’s financed through issuing equity shares to investors, it’ll show in shareholders’ equity. The three components of the accounting equation are assets, liabilities, and equity. Obligations owed to other companies and people are considered liabilities and can be categorized as current and long-term liabilities.

Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s equity

The accounting equation connotes two equations that are basic and core to accrual accounting and double-entry accounting system. Eric is an accounting and bookkeeping expert for Fit Small Business. He has a CPA license in the Philippines and a BS in Accountancy graduate at Silliman University. Based on the data in the previous section, here’s the journal entry to record the payment of the accrued December rent in January.

  • An accounting transaction is a business activity or event that causes a measurable change in the accounting equation.
  • It is used to transfer totals from books of prime entry into the nominal ledger.
  • Because the Alphabet, Inc. calculation shows that the basic accounting equation is in balance, it’s correct.
  • We calculate the expanded accounting equation using 2021 financial statements for this example.
  • Shareholders’ equity comes from corporations dividing their ownership into stock shares.

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